FP7,Emperor,FP7-PEOPLEIEF,KOBENHAVNS UNIVERSITET(DK). The Names of the Roman Emperors. Die Namen der römischen Kaiser. Chen Yuting. Jedes Mal, wenn wir Münzen aus dem Römischen Kaiserreich anschauen. Der römische Kaiser war während der Kaiserzeit der Herrscher des Römischen Reiches. Die Kaiser verwendeten im Laufe der Geschichte verschiedene Titel. Wenn ein bestimmter Römer auf Englisch als "Kaiser" beschrieben wird, spiegelt dies oft seine.
How to Think Like a Roman EmperorThe Names of the Roman Emperors. Die Namen der römischen Kaiser. Chen Yuting. Jedes Mal, wenn wir Münzen aus dem Römischen Kaiserreich anschauen. Boys Roman Emperor Julius Caesar Greek Toga King Kids Costume. This costume is made of high-quality material. This is going to love this Roman Emperor. Many translated example sentences containing "Roman emperor" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.
Roman Emperor Navigation menu VideoWho has the best claim to the title of Roman Emperor?
Doch Thanos holt seine Armee, ist Roman Emperor Lieblingssendung schnell gefunden. - Diese Seite teilenNow possessing absolute power, Octavian became the first Roman emperor.
Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably princeps senatus , consul and pontifex maximus. The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate ; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both.
The first emperors reigned alone; later emperors would sometimes rule with co-emperors and divide administration of the empire between them.
The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king. The first emperor, Augustus , resolutely refused recognition as a monarch.
From Diocletian, whose tetrarchic reforms also divided the position into one emperor in the West and one in the East , until the end of the Empire, emperors ruled in an openly monarchic style  and did not preserve the nominal principle of a republic, but the contrast with "kings" was maintained: although the imperial succession was generally hereditary, it was only hereditary if there was a suitable candidate acceptable to the army and the bureaucracy,  so the principle of automatic inheritance was not adopted.
Elements of the republican institutional framework senate, consuls, and magistrates were preserved even after the end of the Western Empire.
The peaceful reign of Constantine the Great , the first to openly convert to Christianity and allowing freedom of religion, witnessed the replacement of the Caput Mundi from Rome to Constantinople in AD.
The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century after multiple invasions of imperial territory by Germanic barbarian tribes.
Romulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the West after his forced abdication in , although Julius Nepos maintained a claim recognized by the Eastern Empire to the title until his death in Following Nepos' death, the Eastern emperor Zeno abolished the division of the position and proclaimed himself as the sole emperor of a reunited Roman Empire.
Emperor Heraclius made diplomatic relations with the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad , but lost many territories after successful Islamic conquests.
Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire 's Mehmed II in The Muslim rulers then claimed the title of Caesar of Rome.
In addition to their pontifical office, some emperors were given divine status after death. With the eventual hegemony of Christianity, the emperor came to be seen as God's chosen ruler , as well as a special protector and leader of the Christian Church on Earth, although in practice an emperor's authority on Church matters was subject to challenge.
Due to the cultural rupture of the Turkish conquest, most western historians treat Constantine XI as the last meaningful claimant to the title Roman emperor.
From , one of the titles used by the Ottoman Sultans was "Caesar of Rome" Turkish: Kayser-i Rum ,  part of their titles until the Ottoman Empire ended in A Byzantine group of claimant Roman emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in , though they had used a modified title since Eastern emperors in Constantinople had been recognized and accepted as Roman emperors both in the East, which they ruled, and by the papacy and Germanic kingdoms of the West until the deposition of Constantine VI and accession of Irene of Athens as Empress regnant in Objecting to a woman ruling the Roman Empire in her own right and issues with the eastern clergy, the Papacy would then create a rival lineage of Roman emperors in western Europe, the Holy Roman Emperors , which ruled the Holy Roman Empire for most of the period between and These emperors were never recognized as Roman emperors by the court in Constantinople and their coronations resulted in the medieval problem of two emperors.
Modern historians conventionally regard Augustus as the first Emperor whereas Julius Caesar is considered the last dictator of the Roman Republic , a view having its origins in the Roman writers Plutarch , Tacitus and Cassius Dio.
At the end of the Roman Republic no new, and certainly no single, title indicated the individual who held supreme power.
Insofar as emperor could be seen as the English translation of imperator , then Julius Caesar had been an emperor, like several Roman generals before him.
Instead, by the end of the civil wars in which Julius Caesar had led his armies, it became clear that there was certainly no consensus to return to the old-style monarchy , but that the period when several officials, bestowed with equal power by the senate, would fight one another had come to an end.
Julius Caesar, and then Augustus after him, accumulated offices and titles of the highest importance in the Republic, making the power attached to those offices permanent, and preventing anyone with similar aspirations from accumulating or maintaining power for themselves.
However, Julius Caesar, unlike those after him, did so without the Senate's vote and approval. Julius Caesar held the Republican offices of consul four times and dictator five times, was appointed dictator in perpetuity dictator perpetuo in 45 BC and had been "pontifex maximus" for a long period.
He gained these positions by senatorial consent and just prior to his assassination, was the most powerful man in the Roman world.
In his will, Caesar appointed his adopted son Octavian as his heir. On Caesar's death, Octavian inherited his adoptive father's property and lineage, the loyalty of most of his allies and — again through a formal process of senatorial consent — an increasing number of the titles and offices that had accrued to Caesar.
A decade after Caesar's death, Octavian's victory over his erstwhile ally Mark Antony at Actium put an end to any effective opposition and confirmed Octavian's supremacy.
In 27 BC, Octavian appeared before the Senate and offered to retire from active politics and government; the Senate not only requested he remain, but increased his powers and made them lifelong, awarding him the title of Augustus the elevated or divine one, somewhat less than a god but approaching divinity.
Augustus stayed in office until his death; the sheer breadth of his superior powers as princeps and permanent imperator of Rome's armies guaranteed the peaceful continuation of what nominally remained a republic.
His "restoration" of powers to the Senate and the people of Rome was a demonstration of his auctoritas and pious respect for tradition.
Some later historians such as Tacitus would say that even at Augustus' death, the true restoration of the Republic might have been possible.
Instead, Augustus actively prepared his adopted son Tiberius to be his successor and pleaded his case to the Senate for inheritance on merit.
The Senate disputed the issue but eventually confirmed Tiberius as princeps. Once in power, Tiberius took considerable pains to observe the forms and day-to-day substance of republican government.
Rome had no single constitutional office, title or rank exactly equivalent to the English title "Roman emperor". Romans of the Imperial era used several titles to denote their emperors, and all were associated with the pre-Imperial, Republican era.
The legal authority of the emperor derived from an extraordinary concentration of individual powers and offices that were extant in the Republic rather than from a new political office; emperors were regularly elected to the offices of consul and censor.
Every emperor held the latter office and title until Gratian surrendered it in AD to Pope Siricius ; it eventually became an auxiliary honor of the Bishop of Rome.
These titles and offices conferred great personal prestige dignitas but the basis of an emperor's powers derived from his auctoritas : this assumed his greater powers of command imperium maius and tribunician power tribunicia potestas as personal qualities, separate from his public office.
As a result, he formally outranked provincial governors and ordinary magistrates. He had the right to enact or revoke sentences of capital punishment, was owed the obedience of private citizens privati and by the terms of the ius auxiliandi could save any plebeian from any patrician magistrate's decision.
He could veto any act or proposal of any magistrate, including the tribunes of the people ius intercedendi or ius intercessionis.
His person was held to be sacred. Roman magistrates on official business were expected to wear the form of toga associated with their office; different togas were worn by different ranks; senior magistrates had the right to togas bordered with purple.
A triumphal imperator of the Republic had the right to wear the toga picta of solid purple, richly embroidered for the duration of the triumphal rite.
During the Late Republic, the most powerful had this right extended. Pompey and Caesar are both thought to have worn the triumphal toga and other triumphal dress at public functions.
Later emperors were distinguished by wearing togae purpurae , purple togas; hence the phrase "to don the purple" for the assumption of imperial dignity.
The titles customarily associated with the imperial dignity are imperator "commander" , which emphasizes the emperor's military supremacy and is the source of the English word emperor ; Caesar , which was originally a name but came to be used for the designated heir as Nobilissimus Caesar , "Most Noble Caesar" and was retained upon accession.
The ruling emperor's title was the descriptive Augustus "majestic" or "venerable", which had tinges of the divine , which was adopted upon accession.
As princeps senatus lit. In modern terms these early emperors would tend to be identified as chiefs of state. The office of princeps senatus , however, was not a magistracy and did not entail imperium.
At some points in the Empire's history, the emperor's power was nominal; powerful praetorian prefects , masters of the soldiers and on a few occasions, other members of the Imperial household including Imperial mothers and grandmothers were the true source of power.
The title imperator dates back to the Roman Republic , when a victorious commander could be hailed as imperator in the field by his troops.
The Senate could then award or withhold the extraordinary honour of a triumph ; the triumphal commander retained the title until the end of his magistracy.
In 38 BC Agrippa refused a triumph for his victories under Octavian's command, and this precedent established the rule that the princeps should assume both the salutation and title of imperator.
It seems that from then on Octavian later the first emperor Augustus used imperator as a first name praenomen : Imperator Caesar not Caesar imperator.
From this the title came to denote the supreme power and was commonly used in that sense. Otho was the first to imitate Augustus, but only with Vespasian did imperator emperor become the official title by which the ruler of the Roman Empire was known.
The word princeps plural principes , meaning "first", was a republican term used to denote the leading citizen s of the state. It was a purely honorific title with no attached duties or powers.
It was the title most preferred by Augustus as its use implies only primacy, as opposed to another of his titles, imperator , which implies dominance.
In the era of Diocletian and beyond, princeps fell into disuse and was replaced with dominus "lord" ;  later emperors used the formula Imperator Caesar NN.
Pius Felix Invictus Augustus : NN representing the individual's personal name; Pius Felix meaning "Pious and Blest"; and Invictus meaning "undefeated".
The use of princeps and dominus broadly symbolise the differences in the empire's government, giving rise to the era designations " Principate " and " Dominate ".
As a result, historians distinguish the Augustan period as the principate and the period from Diocletian to the 7th-century reforms of Emperor Heraclius as the dominate from the Latin for "lord".
Reaching back to the oldest traditions of job-sharing in the republic, however, Diocletian established at the top of this new structure the Tetrarchy "rule of four" in an attempt to provide for smoother succession and greater continuity of government.
Under the Tetrarchy, Diocletian set in place a system of co-emperors, styled "Augustus", and junior emperors, styled "Caesar". Hadrian - Hadrian built Hadrian's Wall in Britain, to prevent the Picts from invading Roman Britain.
Hadrian died in AD. From AD until AD, there were 32 more emperors. Antoninus Pius Lucius Verus Marcus Aurelius Commodus. Pertinax Didius Julianus Severus Caracalla Geta Macrinus Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander.
Maximinus I Gordian I Gordian II Pupienus Balbinus Gordian III Philip I Trajan Decius Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus Claudius II Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Marcus Claudius Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Numerian Carinus.
Diocletian in AD, created the tetrarchy, abdicated. Maximian Galerius Constantius Chlorus Valerius Severus Constantine in AD. Moved capital to Byzantium, now Constantinople.
Converted to Christianity. Maxentius Licinius Maximinus II Constantine II , son of Constantine Constantius II , son of Constantine Constans I , son of Constantine Vetranio Julian Jovian.
Note: Theodosius I was the last person to rule both halves of the Roman Empire, dividing the administration between his sons Arcadius and Honorius on his death.
Note: The classical Roman Empire is usually said to have ended with the deposition of Romulus Augustulus, with its continuation in the East referred to by modern scholars as the Byzantine Empire.
In a monastery on Prote Island , Theophylact died in a monastery on Plate Island on January 15 Christopher Lekapenos.
Constantine Lekapenos. In a monastery as a monk after having been overthrown. Christopher died in August of Both Stephen and Constantine died in exile as monks; Stephen on Easter on Lesbos and Constantine in on Samothrace trying to escape exile and reclaim imperial power.
Deposed, blinded, castrated and tonsured after attempting to sideline Zoe and her sister Theodora. Andronikos Doukas. Constantine Doukas.
Alexios Komnenos. Accidentally cut himself on a poisoned arrow. Alexios died in Attaleia on 2 August of a fever.
John Komnenos. Captured by crusaders of the newly founded Latin Empire and publicly executed. Note: Between and there was an interregnum when Constantinople was occupied by the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade and the Empire was divided into the Empire of Nicaea , the Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus , which were all contenders for rule of the Empire.
The Laskarid dynasty of the Empire of Nicaea is considered the legitimate continuation of the Roman Empire because they had the support of the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople and managed to re-take Constantinople.
John died 22 September at Thessaloniki , Andronikos died aged 7 on September 24th, Refused to surrender Constantinople to the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II and died fighting during the final Ottoman attack.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. This article is about legitimate Roman emperors. For other individuals claiming the title of Emperor, see List of Roman usurpers.
Main article: Principate. Main article: Julio-Claudian dynasty. Main articles: Year of the Four Emperors and Flavian dynasty.
Main article: Nerva—Antonine dynasty. Main articles: Year of the Five Emperors and Severan dynasty. Main articles: Crisis of the Third Century and Year of the Six Emperors.
Main article: Dominate. Main articles: Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty. Main article: Valentinianic dynasty.
Main article: Western Roman Empire. Main article: Theodosian dynasty. Main article: List of Byzantine emperors. See also: House of Leo. See also: Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty.
See also: Byzantine Empire under the Heraclian dynasty. Main article: Twenty Years' Anarchy. See also: Byzantine Empire under the Isaurian dynasty.
Main article: Byzantine Empire under the Nikephorian dynasty. See also: Byzantium under the Amorian dynasty. See also: Macedonian dynasty and Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty.
See also: Doukas. See also: Komnenos and Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty. See also: Angelos and Byzantine Empire under the Angelos dynasty.
See also: Laskaris and Empire of Nicaea. See also: Palaiologos and Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty. Ancient Rome portal Monarchy portal.
Holland, T. Starr, A History of the Ancient World, Second Edition. Oxford University Press , Wall Street Journal.
Retrieved Retrieved 30 September Hammond , pp. The suffix Augustus becomes a device to denote the holder of the imperial office.
Claudius's death has also been dated to c. August, based on evidence from Egyptian coin issues. Weigel in DIR , 'Claudius II Gothicus', wrote that "this view was raised over a century ago and has not generally prevailed".
DIR , 'Aurelian', says that literary sources all favor a death date early in the year, but nonetheless dates Claudius's death to September without any explanation.
The date of Aurelian's acclamation, variably said to have been May or September , presents the same problem as the date of Claudius's death.
Some modern sources e. Peachin , pp. According to Stein , p. Roman emperors by time period. List of Roman emperors Roman Empire Family tree. Year of the 6 Emperors Gordian dynasty — Illyrian emperors — Gallic emperors — Britannic emperors — Tetrarchies — Constantinian dynasty — Valentinianic dynasty — Theodosian dynasty — Roman and Byzantine emperors and ruling empresses.
Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus Pescennius Niger Clodius Albinus Septimius Severus Caracalla Geta Macrinus Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander.
Maximinus Thrax Gordian I Gordian II Pupienus Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab Philip II Decius Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus Saloninus Claudius Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Ulpia Severina Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus Numerian.
Postumus Laelianus Marius Victorinus Domitianus II Tetricus I with Tetricus II as caesar. Vaballathus Zenobia Septimius Antiochus.
Diocletian Maximian Galerius Constantius Chlorus Severus Constantine the Great Maxentius Licinius Maximinus Daza Valerius Valens Martinian Constantine II Constantius II Constans I Magnentius Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian I west Valens east Gratian west Valentinian II west Theodosius I Magnus Maximus Victor Eugenius.
Honorius Constantine III with son Constans II Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus.
Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris. Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos with Michael IX Palaiologos as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos with John V Palaiologos and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos.
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Wikimedia Commons. Augustus Imperator Caesar Augustus. Grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar , became emperor as a result of settlement with the Roman Senate.
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus. Caligula formally Gaius Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Claudius Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus.
Uncle of Caligula, grandnephew of Augustus, proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard and accepted by the Senate.
Nero Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Grandnephew, stepson, son-in-law and adopted son of Claudius, great-great-grandson of Augustus.
Galba Servius Galba Caesar Augustus . Otho Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus . Licinius — ce. Constantine II — ce. Constantius II — ce.
Constans I — ce. Gallus Caesar — ce. Julian — ce. Jovian — ce. Valentinian I west, — ce. Valens east, — ce. Gratian west, — ce ; coemperor with Valentinian I.
Valentinian II — ce ; crowned as child. Theodosius I east, — ce ; east and west, — ce. Arcadius east, — ce , coemperor; — ce , sole emperor. Magnus Maximus west, — ce.
Honorius west, — ce , coemperor; — ce , sole emperor. Theodosius II east, — ce. Constantius III west, ce , coemperor. Valentinian III west, — ce.
Marcian east, — ce. Petronius Maximus west, March 17—May 31, ce. Avitus west, — ce. Majorian west, — ce. Anthemius west, — ce. Olybrius west, April—November ce.
Glycerius west, — ce. Julius Nepos west, — ce. Romulus Augustulus west, — ce.The self-indulgent emperor Nero had enjoyed a prolonged and peaceful tour of Greece, and had been criticised by the Roman elite for abandoning his fundamental responsibilities as emperor. In the eastern provinces, and to some extent in the west, Nero had enjoyed popular support; claims of his imminent return or rebirth emerged almost. Contents. Emperors after 2 The Principate. 27 BC–68 AD: Julio-Claudian dynasty. 68– Year of the Four Emperors and Flavian dynasty. 96– Nerva–Antonine dynasty. – Year of the Five Emperors and Severan dynasty. There are two parts to the answer to the question "What is (was) a Roman emperor?" One deals with the meaning of the word 'emperor' and the other with the evolution of the role of emperor. The first is relatively simple: The term emperor was used to mark a successful general. His troops hailed him as " imperator ". List of Roman Emperors On these pages, you will find the names, regnal dates, and portraits of the emperors of the Roman Empire, with links to more information. 1st century. The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Der römische Kaiser war während der Kaiserzeit der Herrscher des Römischen Reiches. Die Kaiser verwendeten im Laufe der Geschichte verschiedene Titel. Wenn ein bestimmter Römer auf Englisch als "Kaiser" beschrieben wird, spiegelt dies oft seine. Many translated example sentences containing "Roman emperor" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Roman Emperor Aurelian: Restorer of the World | White, John F. | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. The Names of the Roman Emperors. Die Namen der römischen Kaiser. Chen Yuting. Jedes Mal, wenn wir Münzen aus dem Römischen Kaiserreich anschauen.